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Well...I am still in the enquiry of who i am.. I dont have an answer yet.. Will surely let you know when my enquiry is fruitful..... Life Taught Me "I should LEARN to" kNOW "and Not just to "FOLLOW"..."

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Muyal cheviyan-Emilia sonchifolia (Linn.) DC

Botanical name:Emilia sonchifolia (Linn.) DC. -Muyal cheviyan

Family : Compositae
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES :Plant pacifies vitiated kapha, vata, conjunctivitis, worm infestations, tonsillitis, bleeding piles, cuts, ulcers intermittent fever and allergy.
Characteristics : Anti-septic, Anti-diarrhoeal, Anthelmintic, Febrifuge Bitter, cool, antipyretic, antitoxic, anti-swelling.
 
PLANT DESCRIPTION :It is commonly known as cupid’s shaving brush.It is a soft annual herb grows up to 40 cm in height. Leaves simple, lyrate –pinnate with large terminal lobe; flowers purplish in corymbose heads, fruits oblong containing many seeds; seeds long, compressed, having terminal tuft of soft hairs for wind dispersal. “This medicinal plant provides excellent remedy for eyes, ears and throat complaints.” .
 
The plant requires well drained soil and is drought resistant once they are established. It is an annual herb with weak or erect stems. Leaves are ovate or obovate. The plant flowers from July to October. The flowers are lavender, purple or pink in color. It occurs in open fields and waste lands. It contains calcium, phosphorous magnesium, sodium and potassium. It contains vitamins like riboflavin and niacin. The herb is used as a folk medicine. According to ayurveda the plant has katu, kasaya and tikta rasa, lakhu and grahi guna healer sheeth veerya.
The plant is effective in treating fever, tonsillitis. juice is a natural for eye diseases. It is also good in conditions like worm infections and allergy.  The herb is useful in treating cough and bronchitis. Applying a paste on the thyroid region helps to cure the swelling in is sometimes used in cases of diabetes.

in Sidda branch of medicine it used to cure intenstinal worms and bleeding pilles.The  whole plant is taken fresh and crushed well, juice is extracted and given in the dose of 5 – 10 ml daily for three days to cure intestinal worms.  the paste of whole plant is given in the dose of 2 – 5 grams preferrably with butter milk for bleeding piles. The decoction of the whole plant is effective for fever.

 
 
 
 
 
Preparation:Use whole herb, wash and dry.
Indications
1. Influenza, fever, upper respiratory tract infection, sore throat, oral ulcer.
2. Pneumonitis.
3. Enteritis, dysentery.
4. Genito-urinary tract infection.
5. Mastitis, orchitis.
6. Wound infection, furunculosis, eczema, traumatic injury.
 
 

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

GlorryLilly-Menthoni Kizhanu


It was a bright Sunday morning. I was with my wife at her house. We were walking through the garden suddenly she called me.”shyam, I want to show you something”, and pointed her finger towards the edge of her property. I was shocked to see the glimpse of the dazzling red flower through the bushes. Out of my curiosity, I headed toward the flower.it was very difficult to reach the plant through the thick bushes. i couldn’t believe my eyes.it is the plant which I was searching for long time…I don’t know how it appeared in such an area because it usually see in Ghats and forests. May be somebody has planted it there long time ago…We call it Menthoni kizhangu in Malayalam.so next few days I started my research on the plant and my findings are listed below. Hope you will find time to read this ..happy reading……………….
ORIGIN AND BOTANICAL TRAITS

Family Lilaceae, subfamily Wurmbacoidae
Alternate names Methonia Superba Lamk Lindley
English Name: Climbing-lily, Creeping-lily, Flame-lily, Glory-lily, Gloriosa lily, Tiger claw .
Sanskrit Names: Langli, Kalikari, Ailni, Agnisikha, Garbhaghatini, Agnimukhi Local Names in India: Kalihari, Kathari, Kulhari, Languli (Hindi); Bishalanguli, Ulatchandal (Bengali); Dudhio, Vacchonag(Gujarati); Indai, Karianag, Khadyanag (Marathi); Karadi, Kanninagadde (Kannada); Adavi-nabhi, Kalappagadda, Ganjeri (Telugu); Mettoni, Kithonni (Malayalam); Kalappai-Kizhangu, Kannoru (Tamil); Ognisikha, Nabhikkodi ,Garbhhoghhatono, Panjangulia, Meheriaphulo (Oriya); Kariari, Mulim (Punjabi)
Common Names in World: Flame lily, Isimiselo, Vlamlelie, Riri vavai-moa
Species and Varieties:The genus Gloriosa is comprised of about 10 to 15 known species
* Gloriosa superba Linn,* G luteo,* G plantii,* G.latifolia,* G magnifica,* G rothschildiana,* G abysstinica,* G longifolia,* G simplex,Gloriosa is monobasic with a genetic base x = 11.
Out of the 10 elemental species, G.superba, G.lutea and G.plantii are diploids (2n=22); G.carsonii, G.virescens and G.richmondensis are tetradploids (2n=44) and G.rothschildiana,G.latifolia and .magnifica are octoploids (2n=88).
In general, octoploid species are comparatively short statured and constitute a medium group of plants.The important species found in India are G superba and G.rothschildiana
Nature :An annual climbing perennial herb with tuberous roots
Plant type Tuber
Height:Between 3.5 to 6 m in length The vines are tall, weak stemmed with tuberous roots Leaves Ovate, lanceolate, acuminate, the tips spirally twisted Flowers Large, solitary or may form a lax corymbose inflorescence, twisted and crisped with six recurved or reflexed petals.
Blossoming yellow and changing to yellow red and deep scarlet.
In the bud stage, the petals hang down over the ovary and on maturity, they assume an erect position, leaving the ovary with its stigma exposed at right angles.
Ovary:The ovary is 3 celled and it forms an ellipsoidal capsule.
Seeds :There are numerous seeds in a capsule and the seeds are warty and compressed.
Chemical Constituents:Colchicine and its derivative from tubers.Silosterol, its Glucoside and beta and Gamma Lumicolichicines.Beta silosterol, its Flucoside and 2-H-6-MeO benzoic acid.Flower’s contain Luteolin, its Glucoside, N-Formyl-de-Me-colchicine, its Glucoside and2-de-Me-colchicine Content of Colchicine 0.25%
PRODUCT APPLICATION
Gloriosa superba is a good abortifacient causing expulsion of foetus from the womb.
Roots are antioperiodic, purgative, cholagogue, anthelmintic:
It is bitter, acrid, astringent, anthelmintic and germicidal. It cures leprosy, swelling, piles,
chronic ulcers, colic pain in bladder.
Tubers are tonic and anthelminitic when taken in doses of 5 to 10 grains. Tubers
abortifacient: extract of root, ecbolic.
Paste is antidote in snake bite.

Powder of root is given for treatment of rheumatic fever.Various plant parts are used in spleen complaints, sores, tumours and syphllis. Plant parts Used in Ayurveda Tubers Abortion purpose, in intermittent fevers, wounds. Antifertility purpose, Gonorrhea, Leprosy, Piles. Siddha Root and tubers Mixed with babchi seeds (Psoralea corylifoila), black cumin (Nigella sativa) and purple fleebane (Vernonia anthelmintica) and is made to a paste and is applied externally for various skin diseases.
Ayurveda Roots Abortifacient, acrid, alexiteric, anthelmintic, antipyretic, bitter, depurative, digestive, emetic, expectorant, gastrointestinal irritant, highly poisonous, purgative, rejuvenating, stomachic,thermogenic, tonic, beneficial in vitiated conditions of kapha (phlegm) and vata (wind).Debility, dyspepsia, flatulence, haemorrhoids, helminthiasis, inflammations, in promoting labor pain and expulsion of the placenta. Ayurveda Roots If smeared over the palms and feet of a pregnant woman,delivery of child becomes Easier. Effective against paralysis rheumatism, snake bite, insect bites, against lice. Ayurveda Leafs Asthma, Leaf extract mixed with sesamum oil is applied twice a day on the joints affected with arthritis reduces pain, Effective against lice.
Every parts of the Gloriosa are used as medicinal purpose, in ayurveda and yunani system of medicine it is a reputed medicine. According to ayurveda, tuber is pungent, bitter, acrid, heating, anthemirtic, laxative, alexiteric,abortifacient and useful in ulcers, gonorrhea, leprosy, piles,inflammations, abdominal pains, itching and thirst. Tubers arealso used as antifertility purpose. Coming to the root, the Ethnic communities of North-East Indian people say that, Gloriosa rootpaste is used for curing gout, stomach ache, abortion purpose in intermittent fever, wounds. It can be administered to a delivered mother along with spirituous drink to give relieve to her postnatal complaints and also if its root paste smeared over the palms and feet of a pregnant woman, delivery of child becomes easier. Even the leaves of Glory lily have more medicinal qualities, namely for curing asthma, its juice is effective against lice and also against many skin disorders). It is one of the useful plants
Extract of plant is CNS depressant.One of the very important exported medicinal plants of India that has become endangered within a very short span of the last 50 years is Gloriosa superba L., the codified systems of Indian medicine as well as in folk and tribal medicine. The root is used as a germicide, to cure ulcers, piles, hemorrhoids, inflammation, scrofula, leprosy, dyspepsia, worms infestation, flatulence, intermittent fevers, debility arthritis and against snake poison. The corm (or tuber according to some) which looks like a hoe. It has been the most used in indigenous medical systems of India as well as in Africa. The medicinial importance of the plant is due to the presence of alkaloids (nearly 24 of them) of which colchicine and colchicoside are the principal ones, as well as to the presence of 10 non-alkloidal medicinal compounds including B-sitosterol, chelidonic acid, luteolin, stigmasterol etc. Colchicine is used as a mitosis-arrest agent and in cancer therapy and diabetics, in addition to promote polyploidy in agriculturally important crop plants. Colchicoside is used against accute inflammation like gout and other forms of arthritis.
The plant is being exploited extensively by the local people for medicinal purposes. The flow of the raw drug from the local ad regional markets has increased due to the increased demand by the pharmaceutical companies both within and outside India. Recently, there has been an increased demand for the plant, as a source of colchicine and colchicoside, but the supplies from the conventional sources has not been sufficient. India is a major exporter of Gloriosa superba seeds.
Here is some information on Gloriosa Superba which is about to be extinct so lets save it Glory lily is among some of the modern medicine's most important plants actually facing local extinction.Gloriosa superba derives its name Gloriosa from the word ‘gloriosus’, which means handsome and superba from the word ‘superb’ means splendid or majestic kind. This plant has been a source of medicine right from the ancient time.  
This glorious herb was found in abundance once upon a time in Patalkot valley. Now-a-days, this herb is becoming rare in this valley.
Medicinal importance:

The sap from the leaf tip is used for pimples and skin eruptions. Tribals of Patalkot apply the powder of rhizome with coconut oil in skin eruptions and related diseases for 5 days. This combination is said to be effective in snake and scorpion bites too. Tribals crush roots of the plant in water and apply on head for curing baldness. To avoid painful delivery, Gonds and Bharias of Patalkot, apply rhizome extract over the navel and vagina. It induces labour pain and performs normal delivery. Bhumkas (local healers) generally prescribe 250 to 500 mg of the rhizome as dosage. According to Bhumkas of Patalkot, this dose may lead to abortion if given to a lady with pregnancy of 1 or 2 months. Since the rhizome is having abortive action, this is prescribed for normal delivery. In traditional medicine system, tuber is used for the treatment of bruises and sprains colic, chronic ulcers, hemorrhoids, cancer, impotence nocturnal seminal emissions and leprosy. Many cultures believe the species to have various magical propertiesThe plump roots of the plant have been used in the treatment of parasitic skin infections, leprosy, and internal worms

In Ayurveda and Yunani systems of medicine, the tuber of plant is well known due to its pungent, bitter, acrid, heating, anthemintic, laxative, alexiteric and abortifacient nature. It is widely used in the treatment of ulcers, leprosy, piles, inflammations, abdominal pains, intestinal worms, thirst, bruises, infertility and skin problem However, ingestion of all parts of the plants is extremely poisonous and can be fatal

Other uses:Gloriosa superba is also known as the national flower of Zimbabwe Except miscellaneous pharmaceutical product and other therapeutic preparations, it is also a popular plant for providing color in greenhouses and conservatories even immature flowers are beautiful to behold All parts of the plant, especially the tubers, are extremely poisonous. The tubers may be mistakenly eaten in place of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batata) since the tubers resemble those of sweet potatoes. The juice of the leaves is used as an ingredient in arrow poisons. The flowers are used in religious ceremonies.

Gloriosa superba is believed as most important herb that is exported, and collection of seeds and roots for the foreign market is causing a shortage of raw material for local drug industries in India. If endangered plants like G. superba are allowed to become damaged through excessive collection, a whole series of traditional medicines and plants which have been in use for thousands of years will be threatened. It is therefore need of the hour to come forward and rescue this important glorious herb of Patalkot. Active participation from everyone is highly needed specially people from Chhindwara district.

Gloriosa Superba is generally found in western parts of Tamilnadu and Kerela India. It is critically endangered hence IUCN has placed it in “red data book” recently this species has been spotted for the first time in Topchanchi and Hazaribag District.This is first report of this endangered plant from Jharkhand. Gloriosa superba is one of the poisonous plants. Ingestion of Gloriosa superba tubers causes severe and potentially fatal toxic effects

  

Chemical components: Studies reveal that all parts of the plant, especially the tubers are extremely toxic due to the presence of a highly active alkaloid, Colchicine. The species also contains another toxic alkaloid, Gloriosine (Gooneratne 1966, Angunawela and Fernando 1971). Other compounds such as lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-N-deformyl-N-deacetylcolchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, N-formyldeacetylcolchicine have been isolated from the plant (Chulabhorn et al. 1998). Another important alkaloid called gloriosine is also found in tubers (Gooneratne 1966). Colchicine: CAS number: 64-86-8 Molecular formula: C22H25NO6 Molecular weight: 399.44 Structural name: colchicine Toxic effect: A pale yellow to greenish yellow alkaloid Colchicine is mainly responsible for the toxic effect. The toxins in G. superba have an inhibitory action on cellular division resulting in diarrhoea, depressant action on the bone marrow and alopecia. After ingestion of tubers, initial symptoms develop within two to six hours. Intense vomiting, numbness and tingling around the mouth, burning and rawness of the throat, nausea, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea leading to dehydration etc. are some of the primary symptoms developed initially in the victim. The other important complications include respiratory depression, shock, hypotension, marked leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders, oliguria, haematuria, confusion, seizures, coma and ascending polyneuropathy. Alopecia and dermatitis are the late manifestations that develop about one to two weeks after poisoning (Inchem 2004). Clinical and toxicological observations were made by various workers time to time (Gooneratne, 1966; Dunuwille et al. 1968, Angunawela and Fernando 1971, Murray et al. 1983, Kimberly 1983, Saravanapavananthan 1985, Craker and Simson 1986, Wijesundere 1986, Ellenhorn et al. 1996, Inchem 2004). All parts of the plant, especially the tubers, areextremely poisonous.Colchicine, an alkaloid, is responsible for the toxic effect of G.superba . The species also contains another alkaloid 'gloriosine'.The toxic properties of the plant are essentially due to the highly active alkaloid colchicine. Colchicine occurs as pale yellow to greenish yellow, odourless crystals or amorphous scales or powder. It darkens on exposure to light. Other physico-chemical characteristics Melting point is 157°C Solubility in water is about 1/20. It is freely soluble in alcohol and chloroform (Windholz 1983). In addition to colchicine and gloriosine, G. superba also contains other compounds such as 3-desmethyl colchicine, beta-lumicolchicine, N-Formyldesacetyl-colchicine,2-desmethyl colchicine, chelidonic acid and salicylic acid (Duke 1985).
Colchicine affects cell membrane structure indirectly by inhibiting the synthesis of membrane constituents (Craker and Simson 1986). It binds to tubulin (the structural proteins of microtubules) 63 http://jsrr.in
Science Research Reporter 1(2): 61-64, Sept. 2011 ISSN: 2249-2321 (Print)preventing its polymerization into microtubules. This antimiotic property disrupts the spindle apparatus that separates chromosomes during metaphase. Cells with high metabolic rates (e.g. intestinal epithelium, hair follicles and bone marrow) are the most involved by the arrest of mitosis. The variable effects of colchicine may depend on its binding to the protein subunit of microtubules with subsequent disruption of microtubule function (Ellenhorn et al. 1996). Colchicine also has an inhibitory effect on various phosphatases (Craker and Simson 1986). Gloriosine also has an antimitotic effect (Gooneratne 1966). Conclusion: G. superba produces two important alkaloid clochicine and gloriosine, which are present in seeds and tubers It is conventional drug for gout obtained from corms of G. superba Gloriosa superba is a commercially imperative medicinal plant which has diverse medicinal applications and eventually due to over-explotatlon this plant is facing local exlinction. It has been affirmed as endangered plant by IUCN and hence there is a pressing need to conserve the plant by in situ and ex situ multiplication in general and micropropogation in particular so as to meet the ever increasing demand from the industries There is a greater need of a Community-based Approach in conservation. Awareness among the local community is one the most important task. For this, various activities like poster presentation, campaigns, educational pamphlets and slogans can be applied. A society can be made in the villages that will look after the conservation of important medicinal and economical plants. Universities, Colleges, NGOs and other agencies should come forward and adopt a village of their respective region. These organizations can play a vital role in conservation of important medicinal plant. A medicinal plant garden/ herbal garden and green house can be made in the village itself. At one side there is need of Ex-situ and in-situ conservation, on the other hand, preservation of traditional Ethno-medicinal-botanic knowledge is highly needed. Local healers of targeted area should be encouraged and given support time to time.
Gloriosa superba is believed as most important herb that is exported, and collection of seeds and roots for the foreign market is causing a shortage of raw material for local drug industries in India. If endangered plants like G. superba are allowed to become damaged through excessive collection, a whole series of traditional medicines and plants which have been in use for thousands of years will be threatened. It is therefore need of the hour to come forward and rescue this important glorious herb .
CULTIVATION PRACTICES

Regions cultivated in India:It can be grown throughout tropical India, from the Northwest Himalaysas to Assam and the Deccan peninsula, extending upto an elevation of 2.120 m.
In India, the herb is largely cultivated in Tamil Nadu particularly in Karur and Moolanur region.
In Karnataka, it is also commonly found growing all along the Western Ghats.
Soil conditions:Red soil preferred.Hard soil not suitable
pH of soil 6% to 7% neutral to acid, must be of free draining.
Average rainfall in a year 70 cm.Height from sea level 600 metres preferred
Seeding and Propagation:Seeds should be sown during late winter or early spring
Temperature should be between 20 deg.C & 25 deg.C for optimal germination.
Offset of tubers should be taken in late winter.
Flowering time Summer
Spacing between plant : 30 to 45 cm
Tuber required per acre 500 kg of tuber per acre
Height Up to 1.8m to 2.4m
Irrigation:After seeding, irrigation at the interval of 5 days.Irrigation necesssary at the flowering period.Irrigation not necesssary at the harvesting period.Keep the soil evenly moist during growing season.Reduce the watering after flowering.Temperature Best growing temperatures are between 15°C and 30°C.The plant will tolerate slightly higher or lower of these.
Light Semi-shaded to full sun position. Do not seem to grow well under
artifical light indoors.
Humidity Requires high humidity for good flowering.
Pest & Problems Aphids are the prime pest of the plant.Fertiliser Organic fertiliser to the level of around 120 kg per acre
Propagation
It is commercially propagated from its underground, V shaped rhizomes or sexually
propagated by seeds.The plants raised from seeds take nearly three to four years to flower. Hence, except for experimental purposes, seed propagation is not favoured by the growers.
Gloriosa produces a biforked tuber during the growing season and each of these forks has only one growing bud.Tubers should be handled carefully, as they are brittle and liable to break easily. If the growing bud is subjected to any kind of damage, the tuber will fail to sprout. Since the vigour of the vine and its flowering and fruiting ability depends on the size of the tubers,it should not weigh less than 50-60 g.The plants raised from smaller tubers do not produce flowers during their first year.Large tubers can be divided into two by breaking them in the middle. The dormant tubers start sprouting from the month of May.. Planting during the months of July and August have been found to favour good growth and yield.About 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha of tubers are required for planting.In order to avoid rotting of the tubers before sprouting, only healthy tubers should be selected for planting.
Field preparation and Planting
The field should be ploughed several times until it is brought to a fine tilth. All the grass stubble and roots should be removed.The field must be levelled properly and drainage arrangements made to avoid waterlogging during the rains. The field is then divided into subplots of convenient sizes.
About 15 to 20 t per ha of FYM or compost should be mixed well into the soil.The treated tubers are planted at a depth of 6-8 cm, keeping a plant to plant distance of 30to 40 cm, depending upon the type of soil. Closer spacing has been reported to favour cross pollination, thereby improving the fruit set.
Manures and fertilisers
Though gloriosa makes satisfactory progress with little manuring and fertilisation, the addition of well decayed manure, bonemeal and fertilisers to the soil ensures a vigorous plant, stronger tubers and better flowering.
Experiments carried out on this crop have shown that a fertiliser dose of 120 kg N, 50 kg
P2O5 and 75 kg K2O/ha is required for a good crop.Of the nutrients, the whole P2O5 and K2O and one third of N is applied as a basal dose and the remaining two-third of N should be given in the first six to eight weeks after planting.
Irrigation
Frequent irrigation is required during the sprouting time to keep the surface soft, so that there is no hard pan formation, in order to facilitate easy sprouting and emergence of the growing tip outside the soil.Irrigation should be withheld until after the flowering is over, to prevent rotting of the tubers.Excess watering is harmful to the plants and causes yellow or brown coloured patches on the leaves, which fall off prematurely.
Crop monitoring: The provision of some kind of support is necessary for successfully growing gloriosa
Since the stem is very tender, when the plants are about 30 to 40 cm tall, they should be

tied to wires or allowed to climb on some sort of frame.
Weeding
In the initial stages, the Gloriosa plantation requires frequent weeding to control the weeds which will otherwise compete with plants for moisture and nutrients and will restrict the growth of the plant.While weeding, utmost care should be taken to avoid any damage to the growing tip.Once damaged, it does not sprout again during the season. Chemical weed control is possible only when there is wide spacing between the rows and the plants themselves.
Harvesting
Gloriosa is a crop of 170-180 days duration. When planted in June, it starts bearing flowers after 55 days and continues to flower and fruit till October. The fruit requires about 105-110 days from the set to reach maturity.The right stage of harvest is when this capsule starts turning light-green from dark-greenand the skin of the fruit shows a shrunken appearance and becomes light in weight.At this stage, when pressed, the pod gives a crinkling sound.
The yield of seeds differs greatly, depending upon the vigour and age of the plant which,in turn, depend on the size of the tuber.
The yield in the initial year will be low, but it gradually increases in the subsequent years.Around: 600 kg to 700 kg of seed per hectare The yield of pericarp (husk) is about 75% of the seeds.
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Parts used: Tuberous roots
After picking, the capsules should be kept in the shade for 7 to 10 days to facilitate the capsules to open up, displaying deep orange-yellow coloured seeds.The seeds and pericarp are separated manually and dried for a week in the shade, by spreading them uniformly over any clean, dry floor or any platform specially erected for the purpose.At the later stages, the seeds are moved to the sunlight for a week till they dry completely. The dried seeds are then packed in moisture proof containers and stored until exported or extracted for the alkaloids.

DRIVING FACTORS FOR DEMAND
Export market for the production of Colchicine, which is used in the production of drug for treatment of Arthitis.Tamil Nadu is considered as the preferred area for cultivation of Gloriosa superba

Monday, October 15, 2012

Neyuuni -sival linga kaya-Iviralikova-Diplocyclos palmatus (Linn.) Jeffrey



Botanical name : Diplocyclos palmatus (Linn.) Jeffrey
Family : Cucurbitaceae
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS
Lingini, Lingaphala, Sivapriya
AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES
Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Lakhu
Virya : Ushna
PLANT NAME IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES
English :
Hindi : Sivalingi, Isvarlingi
Malayalam : Neyyunni, Sivalingakkaya, Neyyuruni, Iviralikova, Sivavalli
Distribution – Throughout India growing wild, as a spreading plant.
PLANT DESCRIPTION
A weak stemmed, branched tendril climber. Leaves simple, alternate, 5 lobed, hairy above, pale and smooth beneath; flowers yellow, small, unisexual, male in small fascicles and females solitary. Fruits globose, smooth berry, become bright red when ripe, contain 1-2 small seeds. Looking like sivalinga.
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, inflammation, cough, flatulence, skin diseases and general debility.
Useful part : Whole plant.
 It is considered bitter, aperient and tonic and it is commonly used for relieving bilious attack. The leaves of the plant are applied topically for getting relief from inflammations. The Indian women sometimes take the seeds in combination with other plant drugs for helping conception and prevent miscarriage. The practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine use the plant`s fruit as an aphrodisiac and tonic, while in Siddha; the entire plant is used for getting relief from constipation.

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

Indian pennywort-Kudangal-Mandook parni

 

Centella asiatica –Kudangal,Kari Muthil,Mandook Parni
Pennywort is also known as centella asiatica, gotu kola, asiatic and indian pennywort, brahmi, marsh pennywort, common pennywort, waternavel, sombrevillo de aqua, bachelor's buttons and penny grass. The various names contribute to the region and language it is being used in around the world.
The Pennywort herb is a member of the dill and carrot family.Indian Pennywort is a small creeping herb with shovel shaped leaves emerging alternately in clusters at the stem nodes. The runners lie along the ground and the inch long leaves with their scalloped edges rise above on long reddish petioles. The insignificant greenish- to pinkish-white flowers are borne in dense umbels (clusters in which all the flower stalks arise from the same point) on separate stems in the summer. The seeds are pumpkin-shaped nutlets 0.1-0.2 in long. In India it is revered as a medicinal herb, and particularly in Manipur the full plant is eaten as food like a leafy vegetable. Indian Pennywort appears to have originated in the wetlands of Asia. China, India, and Malaya were probably within its original range.
Commonly known as Jal Brahmi, medicine made from the leaves and the body of this plant is a tonic for diuretic and alterative usages. It subsides the symptoms of the disease and contributes to general health of the patient. It is further known as great tonic for the brain and stimulator of hair growth. The whole plant possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifebrile, diuretic and galactagogic properties. Poultices made from the plant is recommended for contusions, closed fractures, sprains and tuberculosis. The main compounds in Centella are the triterpenes asiatic and madecassic acid, together with triterpenoid ester glycosides, known as asiaticoside and brahminoside, while the volatile principle in the plant contains p-cymol, b-caryophyllene and farnesene.
Used as an
Antibacterial
Anti-Inflammatory
Anti-Febrile & Diuretic
Product Details
 • Botanical Name: Centella asiatica  
• Family Name: Appiaceae  
• Common Name: Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, Artayniya-e Hindi, Jal Brahmi  
• Part Used: leaves/Whole Plant  
• Habitat: Grown in waterlogged places throughout India. 
Hindi Name:Mandookparni
Sanskrit Name:Mandookparni, Saraswati
Malayalam:kudangal,karimuthil,karimtakali,kodakan
Common Name:Indian Pennywort, Gotu kola
Latin Name:Centella Asiatica Urban
Medicinal Properties:The leaves are used in Ayurvedic preparations. Mandookaparni is used as a Medhya Rasayana (Brain tonic). Ayurveda uses it for skin and mental conditions. In many parts of India, it is used as a substitute for Brahmi (Bacopa monnjera). Nootropic (nourishment effects on nervous system) and immunomodulatory activities are observed and established through various clinical researches. When compared this with Brahmi, it showed similar action. It is also used for cardiac care, cough expectoration, polyurea and helps to improve lactation in.
Effect on Dosha:Balances Kapha and Pitta

Gotu Kola is the name used for Centella asiatica in India to distinguish it from the other herb known as Brahmi, (Bacopa monnieri or Herpestis monniera). Actually it has been used for much the same medical purposes as Brahmi and grows in the same countries, although once again it is native to the Indian subcontinent and China, it is believed, but it has become naturalized in the US centuries or perhaps millennia ago.

It has been found to help reduce gastric ulcers in rats, and has shown to have improved their cognitive processes (in different laboratory trials). There is hope that it can be used to help Alzheimer’s patients and to combat the effects of senility.

Traditionally it has been used in India and Pakistan as a cure all and modern medical research has so far supported these ancient uses although more trials are needed on humans before the researchers will say categorically that Centella asiatica is very good for us in lots of ways. They agree that it heals wounds effectively, and can improve blood circulation and help those with varicose veins. As it promotes blood circulation and strengthens veins, it is good for sexual disorders in both sexes, especially erectile dysfunctions in men.
The good news for men in the US is that grows prolifically in wetlands and the dried leaves can be made into a hot tea. You’ll pay a fortune for it as a supplement or sex aid, but you can go and pick your own leaves and dry them- even grow American coinwort (as it’s known in the States) in your garden. (In other countries it’s known as pennywort but here we’re talking about Indian pennywort)

It can help decrease anxiety, stress and fatigue and is good for scleroderma, improving finger movements, joint pain and skin hardening. As it has a mild sedative effect it is good to cure insomnia, although your dreams may have more clarity. It is sometimes used as an aid to meditation, with the leaves burned as incense, as it clears the mind and gives mental clarity. It has been said that it helps in past lives recollection. It has the effect of balancing the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

Gotu Kola is mainly used in the West (at the moment) for its cutaneous anti-inflammatory properties as it can help in rheumatism.

In China it is reputed to promote longevity and the example often given of this is that of Li Ching Yun, a legendary healer who lived until he was 256 years old, presumably retaining all his faculties.

It has anti-aging properties for the skin and tightens older skin, helping to prevent wrinkling and can be used in creams to get rid of acne blemishes. In this respect it is rather like aloe vera.

If you are pregnant, or taking the contraceptive pill, or oestrogen replacement treatment, do not use gotu kola internally.

it boasts numerous health benefits. These include increased youthfulness and vitality, improved eyesight and memory, relief from pain associated with arthritis and relief from insomnia.

Li Ching-Yuen, a Tai Chi Chuan Master, was rumoured to have lived for a staggering 256 years because of his daily use of Pennywort. Sri Lankan King Aruna was said to have given Pennywort the credit for giving him enough stamina to satisfy all 50 women belonging to his harem during the 10th century.

This wonder herb is used to treat venereal diseases, skin impurities, rheumatism, high blood pressure, hepatitis, varicose veins, skin ulcers, minor burns, fatigue and stress. Fresh leaves have been known to be used in treating dysentery, asthma, stomach disorders and bronchitis. Juice extracted from the leaves is highly beneficial in promoting the purification of the blood. It helps improve circulation and the rebuilding of connective tissue, assisting in the prevention of premature ageing. Pennywort can be used for eczema and other skin-related ailments, including skin ulcers. It is also able to lower blood sugar levels.

Pennywort contains a number of minerals and vitamins, among them Vitamin K, calcium, sodium, Vitamin B-Complex, magnesium, zinc and manganese. It is also able to help protect the body from toxins. This herb is also able to greatly benefit the central nervous system, making it effective in the treatment of ADD, senility, epilepsy, strokes and nervous system disorders. Those suffering from leg cramps and phlebitis can benefit from using this herb. It is also effective in reducing fevers.

Pennywort leaves spoil quite quickly, so it is best to use them within 2 days of purchasing them at a health store or after picking and harvesting them. It is a swampy herb that enjoys a fair amount of moisture and is easy to grow.
Place Pennywort leaves in a blender and add enough water to cover them. Add honey, stevia or xylitol to sweeten them. Puree until the leaves are completely mushy. Strain out any leafy sludge that remains with a fine-mesh strainer or colander. Serve it poured over ice. Lemon juice may also be added to improve the taste.
To make tea using Pennywort leaves, pour boiling water over them and steep for approximately five minutes. If using fresh leaves, use around a quarter cup for 1 cup of tea. If you are using dried leaves, use approximately two teaspoons of the dried leaves.
It is important to note that the safety of this herb has not yet been established for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
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This herb works by averting a disorderly manner of the absorption of nutrition and corrects this process through an improved progression of digestion of nutrients. Pennywort has properties of being antibacterial, anti-viral, and anti- inflammatory. It contains vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 as well as the minerals, calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, and zinc.
The benefits of pennywort tea are numerous and many people use this tea as a health tonic. Maintaining youth and the treatment of arthritis are its most popular use. It is recongized as a longivity herb because of its ability to help rebuild connective tissue, which in turn, can slow the aging process. Plus, it has been commended as a great antidote for improving memory and, therefore, considered food for the brain. Studies have indicated by consuming 2-4 raw pennywort leaves a day may help sharpen alertness and memory and rejuvenate the brain. There is important research being conducted to observe the effects this herb can have on those suffering with Alzheimer’s disease.
The central nervous system can receive amazing benefits with the consumption of pennywort. This herb works well in relaxing the mind and can assist in certain nervous disorders, senility, strokes, ADD, and epilepsy. It can be utilized as a nerve tonic when coping with mental stress and fatigue and encourage sleep due to a nervous condition.
Pennywort can help protect our immune system from toxins. High blood pressure, congestive heart failure, venereal diseases and urinary tract infections are a few of a range of illnesses that can be treated with this remarkable herb. Because of its antibiotic properties, it has the capability to speed up the healing process of wounds.

Futhermore, pennywort can improve blood flow while also reinforcing veins and capillaries, making them stronger. Studies have shown it to be beneficial in healing and preventing phlebitis, leg cramps, and blood clots as well as decrease the appearance of varicose veins. It is effective in bringing down fever and treating dysentery in children, which is a servere form of diarrhea.

Pennywort has also proved to cleanse and purify the blood stream and can remedy certain skin conditions such as eczema, chronic ulcers, sores, and scleroderma, which is a condition that hardens the skin. A powder can be made from the leaves of this plant and applied to the eruptions on the skin. 

Holy Basil -Thulasi

Botanical name:Ocimum sanctum Linn
Sanskrit - Tulasi - Tulssi - Surasa - Krishnamul - Vishnu-priya; Hindi - Kala-tulasi; English - Holy basil; Unani - Tulsi; Bengali - Krishna tulasai; Tamil - Thulasi
Part Used: leaves, seeds, root
Ayurvedic Energetics: Rasa: pungent, bitterVeerya: heatingVipaka: pungentGuna: light, sharp, dry
Doshas: decreasesVata &Kafa increases pita
Pharmacological Action of medicinal plant ocimum: demulcent, expectorant, anticatarrhal, antispasmodic, anthelminthic
Traditional Uses: The leaf infusion or fresh leaf juice is commonly used in cough, mild upper respiratory infections, bronchospasm, stress-related skin disorders and indigestion. It is combined with ginger and maricha (black pepper) in bronchial asthma. It is given with honey in bronchitis and cough. The leaf juice is taken internally and also applied directly on cutaneous lesions in ringworm. The essential oil has been used in ear infections. The seeds are considered a general nutritious tonic.
Indications: bronchospasm, cough, indigestion, catarrh
Formulations and Dosage: fresh leaf juice : 15-20 ml with honey tid leaf infusion : 2-3 oz tid
Clinical Research: The ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited a hypoglycemic effect in rats and an antispasmodic effect in isolated guinea pig ileum. Tulsi extract was administered to 20 patients with shortness of breath secondary to tropical eosinophia in an oral dosage of 500 mg TID and an improvement in breathing was noted. The aqueous extract showed a hypotensive effect on anesthetised dogs and cats and negative inotropic and chronotropic activity (reduces the force and rate, respectively) on rabbit's heart. Antibacterial activity has been shown against Staphlococcus aureus and Mycoplasma tuberculosis in vitro as well as against several other species of pathogens including fungi. The plant has had general adaptogenic effects in mice and rats and has been shown to protect against stress-induced ulcers. It has also shown to be protective against histamine-induced bronchospasm in animals.
It is considered a symbol of fidelity and helpful in attaining spiritual enlightenment. It has been used to support a healthy response to stress, maintain blood sugar levels within a normal range, promote longevity, nourish the mind and elevate the spirit.

Tulsi Benefits


Tulsi plant has a lot of significance for mankind, due to the manifold medicinal benefits it provides. Tulsi leaves are widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. It is known to promote the longevity of life. The extracts obtained from the plant are extensively brought to use for curing various diseases such as the common cold, inflammation, malaria, heart disease, headaches, stomach disorders, kidney stones, heart disorders, and many more. The indian basil Tulasi also aids in the purification of atmosphere.

Tulasi plant serves as a fabulous repellant in fighting against flies, mosquitoes and insects. It is especially valuable in combating malarial fever. It is said that at the time of establishment of Victoria gardens in Bombay (now Mumbai), the workers became victims of mosquito bites and suffered from chronic malaria. Seeing the pitiable situation of the workers, some of the Hindu managers recommended the plantation of Tulsi plant in the garden. On following their advice, fruitful results were obtained. Thus, holy basil Tulsi helped to abate the growth of mosquitoes and control malaria.

There are numerous uses of Tulsi plant. The plant is increasingly finding its way in the Ayurvedic treatment of diseases. Tulsi leaves are widely used due to their healing power. It is a tonic for the nervous system and thus, helps a great deal in sharpening the memory. This aromatic plant supports the removal of phlegm and catarrhal matter from the bronchial tube. It also works wonders in preventing stomach disorders. The herb Tulsi is known to cure the respiratory disorders. The decoction prepared by mixing honey, ginger and Tulsi leaves is quite helpful in combating bronchitis,influenza,and,asthma.

The leaves of Tulsi plant are extremely beneficial during the rainy season, when diseases like malaria and dengue victimize the country. Boil the tender leaves of Tulsi in tea and give it to the patient. The juice extracted from Tulsi leaves serves as the best remedy to bring down fever. Tulsi is an essential ingredient in the preparation of Ayurvedic cough syrups. It is highly useful in getting rid of cold and flu. Even, for sore throat, the leaves of medicinal plant Tulsi is of great value. Just boil the leaves of Tulsi in water and ask the patient to gargle with this decoction.

Tulsi has the ability to strengthen the kidneys. For those suffering from the problem of renal kidney stones, the decoction prepared by mixing the juice of Tulsi leaves with honey, if taken sincerely for six consecutive months can oust these stones via the urinary tract. For maintaining healthy heart, Tulsi is of utmost value. It helps in lowering the level of cholesterol in blood. Thus, Tulsi plant serves as the most effective remedy to combat cardiac diseases.
The tulsi or holy basil is an important symbol in the Hindu religious tradition and is worshiped in the morning and evening by Hindus at large. The holy basil is also a herbal remedy for a lot of common ailments. Here're top fifteen medicinal uses of tulsi.
1. Healing Power: The tulsi plant has many medicinal properties. The leaves are a nerve tonic and also sharpen memory. They promote the removal of the catarrhal matter and phlegm from the bronchial tube. The leaves strengthen the stomach and induce copious perspiration. The seed of the plant are mucilaginous.
2. Fever & Common Cold: The leaves of basil are specific for many fevers. During the rainy season, when malaria and dengue fever are widely prevalent, tender leaves, boiled with tea, act as preventive against theses diseases. In case of acute fevers, a decoction of the leaves boiled with powdered cardamom in half a liter of water and mixed with sugar and milk brings down the temperature. The juice of tulsi leaves can be used to bring down fever. Extract of tulsi leaves in fresh water should be given every 2 to 3 hours. In between one can keep giving sips of cold water. In children, it is every effective in bringing down the temperature.
3. Coughs: Tulsi is an important constituent of many Ayurvedic cough syrups and expectorants. It helps to mobilize mucus in bronchitis and asthma. Chewing tulsi leaves relieves cold and flu.
4. Sore Throat: Water boiled with basil leaves can be taken as drink in case of sore throat. This water can also be used as a gargle.
5. Respiratory Disorder: The herb is useful in the treatment of respiratory system disorder. A decoction of the leaves, with honey and ginger is an effective remedy for bronchitis, asthma, influenza, cough and cold. A decoction of the leaves, cloves and common salt also gives immediate relief in case of influenza. They should be boiled in half a liter of water till only half the water is left and add then taken.
6. Kidney Stone: Basil has strengthening effect on the kidney. In case of renal stone the juice of basil leaves and honey, if taken regularly for 6 months it will expel them via the urinary tract.
7. Heart Disorder: Basil has a beneficial effect in cardiac disease and the weakness resulting from them. It reduces the level of blood cholesterol.
8. Children's Ailments: Common pediatric problems like cough cold, fever, diarrhea and vomiting respond favorably to the juice of basil leaves. If pustules of chicken pox delay their appearance, basil leaves taken with saffron will hasten them.
9. Stress: Basil leaves are regarded as an 'adaptogen' or anti-stress agent. Recent studies have shown that the leaves afford significant protection against stress. Even healthy persons can chew 12 leaves of basil, twice a day, to prevent stress. It purifies blood and helps prevent several common elements.
10. Mouth Infections: The leaves are quit effective for the ulcer and infections in the mouth. A few leaves chewed will cure these conditions.
11. Insect Bites: The herb is a prophylactic or preventive and curative for insect stings or bites. A teaspoonful of the juice of the leaves is taken and is repeated after a few hours. Fresh juice must also be applied to the affected parts. A paste of fresh roots is also effective in case of bites of insects and leeches.
12. Skin Disorders: Applied locally, basil juice is beneficial in the treatment of ringworm and other skin diseases. It has also been tried successfully by some naturopaths in the treatment of leucoderma.
13. Teeth Disorder: The herb is useful in teeth disorders. Its leaves, dried in the sun and powdered, can be used for brushing teeth. It can also be mixed with mustered oil to make a paste and used as toothpaste. This is very good for maintaining dental health, counteracting bad breath and for massaging the gums. It is also useful in pyorrhea and other teeth disorders.
14. Headaches: Basil makes a good medicine for headache. A decoction of the leaves can be given for this disorder. Pounded leaves mixed with sandalwood paste can also be applied on the forehead for getting relief from heat, headache, and for providing coolness in general.
15. Eye Disorders: Basil juice is an effective remedy for sore eyes and night-blindness, which is generally caused by deficiency of vitamin A. Two drops of black basil juice are put into the eyes daily at bedtime.
DISCLAIMER: These are only general guidelines as a first aid. It is always better to see a doctor depending upon the intensity of the case. The views expressed above are entirely those of the author . 

Monday, October 8, 2012

introduction on herbal plants


This humble attempt is undertaken by me for the conservation of medicinal plants and sharing the knowledge I obtained from various sources regarding the wonderful healing properties of the medicinal plants which I believe the gift of nature. presently a complete website regarding the medicinal plants is nowhere available in the net. It’s a humble attempt to fulfill this gap.  This work is mainly concerned with studying the medicinal properties of Indian medicinal herbs .i will provide real images & The findings obtained by the experts with medicinal plants. We are presenting variety of medicinal plants especially that is found in India.

Disclaimer

Information on this site is provided for informational and educational purposes and should not be used to diagnose, treat, or attempt to prevent any disease without the advice of a qualified physician or a qualified medical professional or a qualified health practitioner. If you suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider. Tropical medicinal plants.blogspot.com does not give any warranty on accuracy, completeness, functionality, usefulness or other assurances as to the content appearing in this website. Tropical medicinal plants.blogspot .com disclaims all responsibility for any losses, damage to property or personal injury suffered directly or indirectly from reliance on such information and i do not claim to cure, prevent or treat any illness or disease.

Indian Medicinal Plants and their Uses
 The study of herbal medicinal plants, known as Ayurveda was practiced in India. Use of plants for medication and treatment dates back to the Vedic period. Indian medicinal plants or the herbs in Ayurveda have age-old benefits. Various parts of plants like the leaves, flowers, roots and the bark have proven useful in curing a wide range of health related issues. Sometimes herbal derivatives like gum, resins, metabolites and latex have also been used for treatment purposes.  The goodness and healing properties of herbal plants were explored by people since ages. Today, implementation of traditional methods to treat body ailments has become a profession. This has further boosted its commercial production and the rate of consumption has considerably increased. Such products are commercialized today in the form of powders, pills, oils, tablets, creams, etc. 
Underlying the medical culture of India - both folk traditions as well as codified knowledge systems - is a deep understanding of the medicinal value of plants. Starting with the references in the Atharva Veda, we have textual evidence of a tradition of use of medicinal plants that is more than three thousand years old.
It is estimated that about 80,000 species of plants are utilized by the different systems of Indian medicine. The indigenous knowledge about plants and plant products is rather detailed and sophisticated, and has evolved into a separate shastra (branch of learning) itself, called Dravya Guna Shastra. Plants have been studied on the basis of clearly defined biological parameters like rasa (taste), vipaka (metabolic property), guna (quality), prabhava (biological effect) and virya (potency). The codified traditions have about 25,000 plant drug formulations that have emerged from such studies. In addition to this, over 50,000 formulations are believed to be existing in the folk and tribal traditions. All these point to the deep passion for and exhaustive knowledge about medicinal plants that have existed in this land from time immemorial.
Here are some hebs used in Ayurveda...
Sandalwood: Sandalwood finds application in chronic bronchitis. It is one of the most effective herbal remedies for massive sun burns, skin rashes, scars and acne.

Aloe Vera: It is known for its anti-diabetic property. Aloe vera promotes digestive health and is extremely soothing over skin burns and sun tan. It contains all essential amino acids that function as anti-aging factors and is also consumed for nutritional value.

Turmeric: Turmeric has anti-inflammatory property and is also used as an antioxidant. Raw turmeric is very effective in promoting liver health. It shows anti-bacterial action against many skin infections.

Cinnamon: Cinnamon is the most common herbal medicine for indigestion and gastric problems. It has the power to neutralize harmful toxins released by mold and fungus.

Pennywort: This Indian herbal plant is used as a tonic for nerves. It helps to reduce mental stress and physical fatigue. Pennywort also promotes sleep.

Neem: Neem is an excellent remedy for sprains, flu, skin problems, heart diseases, fever, indigestion, viral infection, etc. Some serious health concerns like cancer, kidney diseases and sexually transmitted diseases are also treated by neem.

Basil: Basil or tulsi acts as a blood purifier and it's also an anti bacterial. Tulsi is effective against cough and cold. It enhances digestion and appetite and improves blood circulation. Regular consumption of tulsi leaves boosts immunity of the body.

Ayurvedic doctors have complete trust on the healing properties of medicinal plants as they have proven beneficial for people suffering from different types of health disorders. However, consult your doctor before taking any herb.